Background information on a project

Vertical clearance, and Horizontal clearance other than clear zone.

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There are several key elements of CSS. The context may include the com- munity, ecological, aesthetic, and transportation conditions, as well as the political and policy environment. It puts project needs and both agency and community values on a level playing field and considers all tradeoffs in decision making. This process differs from traditional pro- cesses in that it considers a range of goals that extends beyond the transportation problem, including goals related to com- munity livability and sustainability, and seeks to identify and evaluate diverse objectives earlier in the process and with greater participation by those affected.

A key tenant of CSS is recognizing the need to consider that transportation corridors may be jointly used by motorists, pedestrians, cyclists, and public transit vehicles. Many states have a policy on CSS and incorporate its princi- ples into their project development process. The legislation permitted the use of federal aid to rehabilitate highways to extend their useful life without necessarily improving existing geo- metrics.

How to Write a Research Paper Introduction

These projects were not required to comply with the then current design standards, and would typically not change existing design dimensions. This work may include the fol- lowing: grinding and repair of joints of portland cement concrete pavement; sealing of shoulders and pavement joints in conjunction with other work; placement of a skid-resistant surface treatment; correction of minor drainage conditions; and work to prepare a bridge deck for an overlay.

This may include the following: replacement of bridge deck, pavement, or shoulders without significant widening; recycling of pavement and shoulder materials; replacement of the individual bridge elements to correct a structural deficiency; and minor subgrade work incidental to other work.

What should be included in the project background?

The federal regulatory requirements have changed over time. The technical advisory provides procedures, a process for developing 3R programs and projects, and design criteria for individual geometric elements. In addition, guidance is provided on other design features such as pavement improvements including skid resistant surfaces and pavement edge drop-off remedia- tion, intersection improvements, and traffic controls and regulations.

Providing the needed functions safely, reliably, effi- ciently, and at the lowest overall cost; 2. Improving the value and quality of the project; and 3. Reducing the time to complete the project 15 Although for many years VE has been recognized as a valuable tool for developing a cost-efficient project, it was the Federal-Aid Act of that made it a requirement for federal-aid projects.

Recent years have seen adjustments to the legislation and regulations established for VE. The current policy 16 ,. There are no specific design criteria or guidelines associated with flexible design. In , FHWA published Flexibility in Highway Design 18 to illustrate the flexibility available to designers within adopted state standards to tailor their designs to the particular situa- tions encountered in each highway project. It was prepared to demonstrate how agencies could accomplish the objectives of CSS within accepted design processes and criteria.

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This guide promotes the incorporation of sensitive community and environmental issues into the design of highway facilities. It comprehensively addresses the overall project development process and offers specific examples of incorporating flexibility into the selection of specific design elements. Practical design is the default term used in the report to describe approaches or initiatives some state transportation agencies have adopted that result in design solutions for specific roadway projects believed to better address the critical needs of the entire roadway system.

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The documentation may be referred to as a scope statement, statement of work SOW or terms of reference. During the project, this documentation helps the project team remain focused and on task. The scope statement also provides the project team leader or facilitator with guidelines for making decisions about change requests during the project. It is natural for parts of a large project to change along the way, so the better the project has been "scoped" at the beginning, the better the project team will be able to manage change.

When documenting a project's scope, stakeholders should be as specific as possible in order to avoid scope creep, a situation in which one or more parts of a project ends up requiring more work, time or effort because of poor planning or miscommunication. Effective scope management requires good communication to ensure that everyone on the team understands the scope of the project and agrees upon exactly how the project's goals will be met.

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  • As part of project scope management, the team leader should solicit approvals and sign-offs from the various stakeholders as the project proceeds, ensuring that the finished project, as proposed, meets everyone's needs. Project Justification is about trying to explain why we need to implement a particular solution to the problem we have narrated above.

    Background information for the project "Equine Anaerobic Fungi"

    We need to tell donors why this is the best solution to address the problem. For example, if we are proposing a microfinance intervention for poor families so that they can make some savings to educate their children, then we need to justify this part by specifically saying that people are interested in microfinance and they have been some self-help group activity going on in the area.

    Besides, there are opportunities available for such microfinance activities in the area like for example banks are willing to provide small loans to organized microfinance groups. Similarly, if we are proposing computer centers to train and generate employment opportunities for youths, then we can justify this intervention by saying that the local government policy is providing support to such an activity in form of some support, maybe infrastructural or subsidy.

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    What is the Project Background? - proposalforNGOs

    Get Fresh Updates On your job applications, and stay connected. Download Now. Start networking and exchanging professional insights Register now or log in to join your professional community. Follow What are the differences between project background, scope of project, aims of project, and project justification? Question added by Mohammed Helal , Sr. Resident Engineer. Upvote 6 Views Followers